• zeybel-mausolee

    Mausolée de Zeynel Bey

  • mersin-autres-maisons

    Mersin, maisons peintes

  • izmir-golfe

    La côte d'Izmir vers Göztepe

  • Monastère de Sumela

    Fresque, Monastère de Sümela, près de Trabzon

  • Gilindere

    La grotte de Gilindere

  • Harran et ses maisons-ruches

    Harran, maisons-ruches, üzellik etc

  • izmir-urla

    Urla, près d'Izmir

  • famille-1920

    Famille, picnic, vers 1920

  • zumrudu-anka-1923

    Zümrüd-ü Anka, magazine satirique, 1923

  • cannakale

    Çanakkale, la traversée du détroit

  • portrait-homme

    Portraits d'hommes, 1920-1930

  • Efes

    Ephèse, un site exceptionnel

  • Shahmeran

    Shahmeran, la femme-serpent

  • Moutons et kangals

    Moutons et kangals en Anatolie

  • Zeugma muzesi

    Dionysos, Musée des mosaïques de Zeugma, Gaziantep

  • Mersin

    Tempête à Mersin, mars 2015

  • Beypazari

    Beypazari, dans la vitrine d'un bijoutier

  • Istanbul, barques

    Istanbul, barques, 1939

  • Burgazada

    Vue d'Istanbul depuis Burgazadasi

  • Uskudar

    Üsküdar, Scutari, une rue au début du XXe siècle, carte postale

Grammaire très complète écrite par un professeur arménien de l'Anatolia College de Merzifon (actuelle province d'Amasya).

  • Ottoman-Turkish conversation-grammar; a practical method of learning the Ottoman-Turkish language by V. H. Hagopian, professor of the turkish, arabic and persian kanguages in Anatolia Collge Merzifoun, Turkey ; Author of English-Armenian Dictionary etc. , London, David Nutt..., New York, Brentano's, Boston, C. A. Koehler & Co..., Heidelberg, Julius Groos, 1907, 554 pages (disponible sur archive.org http://www.archive.org/details/ottomanturkishc00hagogoog)
  • Key to the Ottoman-Turkish conversation-grammar, [mêmes mentons d'auteur et d'éditeur], 1908 (disponible sur archive.org http://www.archive.org/stream/cu31924026883003#page/n0/mode/2up)
  • hagopian-key-000
  • hagopian-key-001
  • hagopian-key-004-5
  • hagopian-key-006
  • hagopian-key-007
  • hagopian-key-008
  • hagopian-key-009
  • hagopian-key-174
  • hagopian-key-175
  • hagopian-key-176
  • hagopian-key-177
  • hagopian-key-178
  • hagopian-key-179

Simple Image Gallery Extended

V. H. Hagopian est aussi l'auteur de : A dictionary, English-Armenian / by V.H. Hagopian. Constantinople, Press of H. Matteosian, 1907, 949 p.

Cette grammaire tente, écrit l'auteur, de combler le manque d'ouvrages permettant aux Anglais et aux Américains l'apprentissage d'une langue aussi importante que le Turc.

Elle est constitué du manuel avec de nombreux exercices et du volume des corrigés (keys).

Les textes sont en caractères arabes avec la plupart du temps la translittération selon l'orthographe anglaise avec quelques ajouts.

Hagopian

Turc moderne

Exemples

a

a

 

é

e

ékmékji / ekmeci

i

i

 

î

ı

bîchaq / bıcak

o

o

 

û

ü

gûmûsh / gümüș

ou

u

shounda / șunda

êôu

ö

dêôurt / dört

ay

ay

 

éy

ey

 

iy

iy

 

îy

ıy

qîymet / kıymet

ouy

uy

douymaq / duymak

ûy

üy

gûya / güya

êôy

öy

sêôylé / söyle

kh

h

khîrsîz / hırsız

gh

ǧ

Sagh' olsoun / saǧ olsun

zh

j

pour les mots persans et français

zhour'nal / jurnal

ñ

n

oghlounouz / oglunuz

j

c

qojaman / kocaman

q

k

doqouz / dokuz

sh

ș

ishji / ișçi

ch

ç

chift / çift

Il y a quelques problèmes de transcription :

  • pour les voyelles : shéftali pour șeftale, adémlér pour adamlar

  • le t final est parfois transcrit d comme avec les caractères arabes : armoud pour armut

V. H. Hagopian, comme d'autres à cette époque, affirme, dans son introduction, que, pour maîtriser la langue turque, il faut avoir une connaissance sommaire de l'arabe et la persan.

Ottoman-turkish conversation grammar, Preface. 

The Turkish language is of Tartar origin, as the Turks came from Central Asia, and is consequently quite distinct from Arabic and Persian, although it is true that in modern times the Arabic characters have been adopted for all three languages, and that the Turkish language is now half filled with Arabic and Persian words. Yet these words have been incorporated without affecting the nature or framework of the Turkish, which is as different from Arabic and Persian as Anglo-Saxon dialects are from Hebrew or Hungarian. In fact pure Turkish is Turanian, while Arabic is Semitic and Persian Aryan, and the resulting modern Ottoman-Turkish is compounded not only of three languages but of representatives of the three great families of languages. The original Turkish tongue, which is called Chaghata (Jagatai), was somewhat barbarous, but extremely forcible and concise when spoken. The adoption of Arabic and Persian words is arbitrary. To master the language it is necessary to have at least an elementary knowledge of the Arabic and Persian languages. 

It is an extraordinary and lamentable fact that the language of the Turks has hitherto received little or no attention in England, although it is spoken by millions of people belonging to a vast empire with which we are closely connected by mutual vital interests, and i« more or less used, in official circles, from Tunis in Africa to the walls of China. It is the court language of Persia, and in many provinces of that country, of South Russia and Afghanistan is s])oken as much as Persian. It is difficult to account for the absolute neglect of the study of such an important language, considering that it is used by a people who once influenced half the world, who overturned and established empires, who have possessed the thrones of Persia, Greece, Egypt and Arabia; whose power was once dreaded by Italy, Germany and France, and to whom our proud Queen Elizabeth applied for aid against the Spanish Armada. 

The Turkish has always been of the greatest consequence to us, owing to the importance of our political and commercial relations with the Ottoman Empire, and the complete ignorance of it on the part of our country-men has greatly impeded proper communication and intercourse between the two nations and given rise to most serious misunderstandings and difficulties both in the diplomatic and commercial world. [Dr. Ch. Wells.] 

Besides, not a small body of earnest men from the great Anglo-Saxon republic of the Trans-Atlantic continent have long been established in Constantinople and in the provinces of Turkey, labouring to unfold the treasures of modern science, temporal and spiritual, to the people of Turkey; losing no opportunity to place themselves in friendly communication both with the governing Ottoman element and with the numerous races and religious denominations subject to the Imperial sway. 

To meet the need of the representatives of these two great nationalities in Turkey, there arose the necessity for conversation-books, grammars and lexicons. 

There have appeared a number of Turkish grammars and other books in the English language, but they seem little fitted to acquaint the learner fully with Turkish, chiefly because they are not sufficiently practical in the strict sense of the word, or they are composed only of rules. The appearance of a new Ottoman-Turkish Grammar which combines in itself the theoretical and the practical elements of the language, it is expected will be cheerfully welcomed. 

The so-called Conversation-method, originated by Drs. Gaspey and Otto, is now applied for the first time by the writer of this present book to the Ottoman-Turkish language also. It is his mother tongue and besides for more than 20 years he has practised this method in teaching the language in an important American institution to the natives of Turkey and to English-speaking foreigners. Therefore his own experience enables him to speak with some little authority on this subject. He thinks he has introduced a new element too in the Gaspey-Otto conversation-method, by inserting the word exercises which appear on pp. 121 — 125, 215, 256 etc. 

The First Part of this work is devoted to conversational language and in it all the peculiarities of the language are given in a very easy and comprehensive way. The study of the First Part being finished it will soon be seen that Turkish is a very regular language, and that it is far more easy than is generally thought. 

In the Second Part the elements of the Persian and Arabic languages are treated of as they are used in Ottoman-Turkish, and all the difficullies of both languages are explained, in a concise way. This is the Literary and Official language. There are then added some very valuable matters and a vocabulary. 

As to the Exercises and Reading Lessons for translation, most of them are on subjects referring to Turkey and Turkish literature. Many characteristic specimens of poetry and prose illustrative of the literature and of the country, especially in modern phraseology, are given, so that the learner will feel himself in Turkey, and will have a glimpse into the geography, the history and the manners and customs of the country. 

I recommend as a help to the student the excellent Turkish-English Dictionary of Sir J. Redhouse and the valuable Turkish Dictionary of Samy Bey, which latter is the most reliable guide to the student after finishing the First Part of this Grammar. And as a purely Turkish Grammar I recommend that of Mihran Effendi Apigian (Mihri), to which I am much indebted. 

1 am much indebted also to Rev. Dr. W. St Clair-Tisdall, the C. M. S. missionary at Ispahan, Persia, who has carefully revised the MS. and has made valuable suggestions. Himself being a ripe scholar in the language, these have been of great service to me. 

I must also express my sincere thanks to Dr. J. Wright, of Oxford, for the kindness and care with which he has looked over the proofs of this work. 

V. H. Hagopian. 

Anatolia College, Merzifoun (Marsovan), Turkey. 

Key to the Ottoman-Turkish conversation-grammar, Preface. 

This Key contains the translation of all the Exercises, Translations, Eeading Exercises and the Turkish Appendix in the Ottoman-Turkish Grammar. 

The student will notice that the English of the translations from Turkish have an Oriental colouring; that will help him to understand how the Turkish mind works. 

The Orthography of purely Turkish words has been simplified a great deal, in accordance with the method adopted by the eminent Turkish authors. Though the same word may often be seen in their works spelt differently, yet they are all accepted as being correct (See § 56 in the Grammar). 

The student must practice to write the Turkish characters beginning from the first page of the Grammar. A reed pen is preferable, but if it cannot be procured any stub pen will do the work. He must practice to copy all the Turkish Exercises. 

V. H. Hagopian. 

Anatolia College, Merzifoun (Turkey). 

Ottoman-turkish conversation grammar, Sommaire

Introduction. 

A. Letters of the Alphabet ...... 1 

B. Pronunciation of Letters ...... 

C. Other Orthographic Signs  ...... 20 

D. Accent  ...... 23 

E. Euphony or Harmony of the Vowels  ...... 24 

F. Orthography  ...... 25 

First Part. Turkish Grammar. 

1. Lesson. The Definite and Indefinite Articles .... 27 

2. » The Substantive Verb  .... 31 

3. » » » » (continued)  .... 35 

4. » Declension of Nouns  .... 39 

5. » The Pronouns  .... 47 

1. Personal Pronouns  .... 47 

2. Possessive Pronouns  .... 49 

6. » The izafet .... 55  

The Family  .... 58 

7. » The verb To Have  .... 61 

 8. » The Pronouns (continued) ....  69 

3. Adjectival Pronouns ....  69 

4. Demonstrative Pronouns  .... 70 

5. Reflexive Pronouns  .... 72 

 9. » The Adjective  .... 75  

Derivative Adjectives  .... 75 

               »      Nouns  .... 77 

10. » The Pronouns (continued)   .... 82 

6. Interrogative Pronouns   .... 82 

7. Indefinite Pronouns  ....  84 

11. » Numeral Adjectives  ....  89 

1. Cardinal numbers  ....  89 

12. » Numeral Adjectives  ....  94 

2. Fractional numbers   .... 94 

3. Ordinal numbers  ....  95 

4. Distributive numerals   .... 96 

The Ottoman-Turkish Calendar .... 96 

13. » Degrees of Comparison  ....  100 

14. » Nouns with Prepositions   .... 105 

15. » The Substantive Verb (continued) 109 

16. » The Infinitives  ....  114 

I Reading Exercise: The Story of the 

Cat and the Camel   .... 117 

17. Lesson. Primitive and Derivative Verbs   .... 119

1. Oqoutmaq, 2. Tazdirmaqy î5. Ichirmek 4. Taranmaq, 5. Yaztlmaqy 6. Géorüshmék 121—125

2. Reading Exercise: The Divisions of Turkey ... 126

18. » Compound Verbs    .... 127

Potential Verbs ..... 131

Accelerative Verbs    .... 132

Reading Exercise; The Provinces    .... 133

19. » The Derivative forms of the Infinitive  .... 135

The Continuative Tenses    .... 139

20. » The Finite Verb    .... 141

The Moods of the Verb and Imperative    .... 142-144

Reading Exercise: Religions and Denominations    .... 146

21. » The Present Tense    .... 147

Reading Exercise : The Use of Animals    .... 151

22. » The Aorist Tense    .... 152

Reading Exercise: Voices of Animals ... 158

23. » The Past Tenses    .... 159

 The Categorical Past    .... 159

The Dubitative Past    .... 163

24. » The Future Tense    .... 166

Reading Exercise: A Sermon of Nasr-éd-din    .... 170

 25. » The Optative Tense    .... 171

 26. » The Suppositive Tense (Subjunctive)    .... 176

A Reading Exercise: A Sermon of Nasr-éd-din (Continued)    .... 179

 27. » The Necessitative Tense    .... 180

 Reading Exercise: The Marriage of the Teacher... 185

 28. » The Participles    .... 185

I. Subjective Mood    .... 193

Comparison    .... 195-200

Reading Exercise : To hang flour on a line    .... 192

 29. » The Participles (continued)    .... 193

II. Objective Mood    .... 193

Comparisons    .... 195-209 

 Reading Exercise : Jack's House    .... 203

30. » Gerunds   .... 1204

The Table of — i   .... 206

 Reading Exercise : The Distinction between Man and Beast    .... 210

31. Lesson. Nouns and Adjectives derived from Verbs   .... 211 

1. The Regular Verbal Adjective   .... 211 

2. The Irregular > »  .... 212 

3. The Noun of Excess  .... 214 

4. » » > Location  .... 214 

5. Instrumental Nouns   .... 214 

Reading Exercise: An Anecdote...  218 

32. » Prepositions v. Postpositions ... 219 

Reading Exercise : The Village Room, a. ... 223 

33. » Adverbs 224 

Reading Exercise : The Village Room, h. ... 229 

34. » Conjunctions 230 

Reading Exercise : TheVillage Room, c. ... 236 

35. » The Interjections ... 236 

Reading Exercise: TheVillage Room, d, c, f, g ... 238 

36. » Appendices ... 241 

Salutations ... 242 

Congratulations ... 242 

Modes of Address ... 245 

Honorific Titles ... 247 

OnomatopcBİa...  251 

Ezan ... 251 

The Christian Services...  252 

Second Part. The Elements of Arabic and Persian. 

Introductory Remarks...  254 

37. Lesson. The Persian Plural 255 

A Reading Exercise: The Match Girl ... 256 

38. » The Persian izafet ... 261 

Persian Numerals...  264

Reading Exercise: Franklin's Principles, a 266 

39. » Persian Compound Adjectives 267 

Reading Exercise: Franklin's Principles, b ...  272 

40. » The Persian Derivative Nouns 274 

 Reading Exercise : The Storv of the Donkey and Fox .... 277 

41. » The Persian Verb 280 

Objective and Subjective Participles ... 281 

The verbal Noun ... 281 

Verbal Adjectives ... 282 

The Persian Roots ... 282 

 Reading Exercise: A Supplication and Praise ... 287 

42. Lesson. The Persian Prepositions .... 288 

Substitution; Omission.... 289 

 Reading Exercise: The Hunter.... 292 

48. » The Gender of Arabic Nouns.... 294 

The Number of Arabic Nouns .... 296 

Dual; Regular Masculine; Fem. Plural  ... 296 

Reading Exercise: A Poem.... 302 

44. » The Arabic Nisb....  303 

Abstract Noun  ... 305 

Reading Exercise: Columbus' Egg, a.  ... 308 

45. » The Arabic Infinitive  ... 310 

I. The Primitive Triliterals  ... 313 

II. The Primitive Quadriliterals ... 316 

Reading Exercise: Psalm 84 ... 317 

46. » Nouns derived from Primitive Triliterals ... 318 

I. Nouns with Mim  ... 318 

II. Noun of Location  ... 319 

III. Noun of Instrument  ... 320 

Reading Exercise: A Psalm of Life ... 322 

47. » Arabic Participles 324 

I. Subjective Participle (Fayil) . . 324 

II. Objective » {Mefoul) . . 325 

III. Adjective of Quality {MushebbiU) . 326 

IV. Adjective of Colour and Defect  ... 327 

V. Noun of Superiority {Ismi Tafzil) ... 327 

VI. Noun of Excess {Mubalagha)  ...  328 

 Reading Exercise: A Litany of Praise 331 

48. » The Derivative Triliteral Infinitives .... 332 

II. Tefil = Tefqeel 332 

III. Mufa'alé = Mufaqali .... 333 

IV. Ifal = Ifqal 334 

V. Tefa'oul = Tefaqoul 335 

Reading Exercise: Friendship ... 338 

49. » The Derivative Triliteral Infinitives (continued) ...  389 

VI. Tefa'oul = Tefaqqoul .... 339 

VII. Infi'al = Infiqal 340 

VIII. Ifti'al = Iftiqal 341 

IX. If Hal = Ifqilal 342 

X. Istifal = Istifqal 842 

Reading Exercise : True Nobility . . 345 

50. » The Participles of Derivative Infinitives . . 346 

Reading Exercise: Administrative 

Councils 352 

51. » Broken or Irregular Plurals 353 

Reading Exercise : Columbus' Egg, &. 360 

52. Lesson. The Agreement of Adjectives with Nouns . . 361 

 Reading Exercise: The Inventions . 365 

53. » The Arabic Definite Article ... 366 

The Arabic Preposition ... 371 

Reading Exercise: An Anecdote . . 375 

54. » Arabic and Persian Pronouns ... 375 

Reading Exercise: Regulations etc ... 380 

55. » Arabic and Persian Adverbs ... 382 

Reading Exercise: Newton .... 385 

56. » Arabic Numerals ... 387 

I. Cardinal numbers ... 387 

II. Ordinal numbers ... 387 

III. Fractional numbers ... 388 

The Diminutive Noun ... 389 

Reading Exercise: Home .... 393 

57. » Arabic Compound Words ...  395 

I. Arabic svstem  ... 395 

II. Persian system  ... 396 

Reading Exercise : The Overthrow (poem)  ... 398 

58. » I. Synonymous Words  ... 400 

II. Symphonious Terminations ... 402 

III. Antonyms ... 402 

Reading Exercise: Terkibi BMi . . 405 

59. » The Euphonic Changes of the Letters  ...  407 

I. The Assimilation of Letters ... 407 

IL The Modification of Weak Letters  ...  410 

a. Modification of Vav ...  411 

b. Modification of Yé  ... 413 

Reading Exercise: The Ceremony of the Coronation of the King of England ...  415 

60. » Miscellaneous Idiomatic Phrases  ... 418 

Appendices. 

The Ottoman Literature  ... 420 

Sultans of the House of Osman ...  423 

Arabic Calendar  ... 424 

Ottoman Financial Calendar 425 

Parsing 426 

Reading Exercise: The Prophet's Speech  ... 426 

Conjugation of Turkish Verbs  ... 431 

The Official Part. 

The Imperial Palace ...  434 

His Imperial Majesty the Sultan ...  434 

The Sublime Porte  ... 435 

The Council of Ministers  ... 435 

The Grand Viziriate ...  436 

The Council of State  ... 437 

The Foreign Office  ... 437 

The Ministry of Internal Affairs ...  437 

The Sheikh-ûl Islamate  ... 438 

The Ministry of Finance  ... 438 

The Imperial Mint  ... 438 

The Customs Administration  ... 439 

The Ministry of Public Instruction  ... 439 

The Ministry of Justice and Public Worship  ... 440 

The Prefecture of Police  ... 441 

The Ministry of Commerce  ... 442 

The Council of International Sanitation ...  442 

The Ministry of Religious Funds ...  442 

The Administration of Posts and Telegraphs ...  443 

The Ministry of War  ... 443 

Military Grades  ... 444 

Arms  ... 445 

The Admiralty; Naval Officers  ... 446 

The Imperial Arsenal ...  447 

Different Kinds of Ships ...  447 

The Provinces ...  449 

Diplomatic terms  ... 450 

Festivals: Moslem Festivals  ... 454 

Christian Festivals  ...  455 

Jewish Festivals  ... 456 

Orders of the Ottoman Empire ...  456 

Medals ...  456 

The Ranks in the Ottoman Empire  ... 457 

Civil Grades of Nobility  ... 458 

Military and Naval Grades  ... 458 

Grades of the Religious Hierarchy ...  458 

Official Titles  ... 459 

Of Functionaries of Civil and Military Grades  ...  460 

Of Moslem Clergy  ... 461 

Of Non-Moslem Clergy  ... 462 

Commercial Terms  ... 462 

Vocabulary ...  465 

General-Index  ... 489